Coronary Heart Disease/Coronary Artery Disease

What is coronary heart disease?

Heart disease, often referred to as coronary artery disease (CAD) or coronary heart disease (CHD), involves buildup of plaque, a wax-like substance, in the walls of the arteries. The arteries are blood vessels that help pump oxygen-rich blood away from the heart and throughout the body. When plaque builds up, it causes "narrowing" of the arteries, making it difficult for blood to flow freely. Plaque can also cause "hardening" of the arteries, which refers to hardened plaque along the arterial walls. Hardened plaque can break off and also cause blockage of blood flow. If plaque ruptures, the ruptured area can form a blood clot, which can potentially break loose and cause a blockage. If any of these things happen, it can lead to heart attack, heart failure, or arrhythmia. If a blood vessel to the brain is blocked, it can cause stroke.

Plaque buildup and thickening or hardening of the arteries takes many years to develop. People most at risk are people with high LDL ("bad") cholesterol and low HDL ("good") cholesterol as well as people with high blood pressure and diabetes. Women who had high-risk pregnancies or who are postmenopausal are also at greater risk for heart disease.

Symptoms of coronary heart disease

As the condition worsens, you may experience symptoms of angina or chest pain, such as:

  • Aching in the chest
  • Burning sensation in the chest
  • A heavy feeling in the chest
  • Numbness
  • Squeezing in the chest

Some people feel sensations in other parts of the body like the shoulder, neck or back. Women often have unique symptoms of nausea, fatigue, or shortness of breath.

Diagnosis and testing for coronary heart disease

If you’re having symptoms that concern you or you may be at higher risk for heart disease, be sure to talk with your doctor. Your doctor will review your medical history and perform a physical exam, and may order additional testing, such as:


If you are diagnosed with heart disease, your doctor will discuss treatment options for you. Treatment is commonly a combination of diet and lifestyle changes along with medications, and in some cases, surgery.

Coronary Revascularization/Hybrid Coronary Revascularization

CABG and angioplasty are examples of coronary revascularization. About 40 percent of all robotic-assisted CABG performed at Lankenau use hybrid approach. Hybrid coronary revascularization refers to both grafting and stenting approaches to improving blood flow to the heart.

Robotic-Assisted Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG)

To care for patients with multiple blocked vessels, heart bypass surgeons collaborate with interventional cardiologists to offer hybrid approach involves a combination of coronary stent placement and robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery), also known as heart bypass surgery or robotic heart surgery.

Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (and Stenting)

Coronary angioplasty is a treatment for atherosclerosis, which you may need if diet and lifestyle changes aren’t enough to improve blood circulation to the heart. Learn more about what to expect during angioplasty and stenting procedure.



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Genetics and Risk Assessment

Genetic evaluation is becoming an important part of personalized care, as many health conditions have a genetic basis and genetic test results can help to guide medical decisions. Our genetic counselors provide consultations related to cancer genetics, cardiovascular genetics and prenatal genetics.